TO the President of Congress Camp at Cambridge, July 20, 1775

SIR: Since I did myself the Honor of Addressing you the 14th instant I have received Advice from Governor Trumbull, that the Assembly of that Colony had voted and that they are now raising Two Regiments of 700 men each, to join this Army, in consequence of an Application from the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts Bay. The Rhode Island Assembly has also made an Augmentation for this purpose; these Reinforcements with the Rifle men who are daily expected and such recruits as may come in, to fill up the Regiments here, will I apprehend, compose an Army sufficiently strong to oppose any Force which can be brought against us at present. I am very sensible that the heavy expence necessarily attendant upon the Campaign will call for the utmost Frugality and care, and would therefore, if possible, avoid inlisting one unnecessary man. As this is the first certain Account of the destination of these new raised Troops, I thought proper to communicate my Sentiments as carly as possible, least the Congress should Act upon my Letter of the 1oth and raise Troops in the Southern Colonies, which in my present Judgment may be dispensed with.

In these 8 days past there have been no Movements in either Camp of any consequence: On our side we have continued the Works without any Intermission, and they are now so far advanced as to leave us little to apprehend on that Score. On the side of the Enemy, they have also been very industrious in finishing theit Lines both on Bunker's Hill and Roxbury Neck In this interval also their Transports have arrived from New York and they have been employed in landing and Stationing their Men. I have been able to collect no certain Account of the Numbers arrived' but the inclosed Letter, wrote th'o not signed by Mr. Sheriff Lee and delivered me by Captain Darby, who went express with an Account of the Lexington Battle, will enable us to form a pretty accurate Judgment. The increase of
tents and Men in the Town of Boston is very obvious, but all y Accounts from thence agree, that there is a great Mortality, occasioned by the Want of Vegetables and fresh meat; and their Loss in the late Battle at Charles Town (from the few recoveries of their Wounded) is greater than first supposed. The State of the Inhabitants detained in Boston is very distressing, they are equally destitute of the comfort of fresh Provisions and many are so reduced in their circumstances, as to be ugable to supply themselves with Salt: Such Fish as the Soldiery leave, is their principal support. Added to all this, such Jealousy and
suspicion prevails that they can scarcely speak or even look,_without exposing themselves to some Species of Military Execution.

I have not been able from any Intelligence I have received, to form any certain Judgment of the future Operations of the Enemy. Some Times I have suspected an Intention of detaching part of their Army to some part of the Coast, as they have been building a number of Flat Bottomed Boats capable of holding 200 Men each. But from their Works and the Languge held at Boston there is reason to think they expect an attack from us and are principally engaged in preparing against it. I have ordered all the Whale Boats for many miles along the Coast to be collected and some of them are employed every Night to watch the motion of the Enemy by water, in order to guard as much as possible against any surprize.

Upon my Arrival and since, some Complaints have been prepared against Officers for Cowardice in the late Action on Bunkers Hill; tho' there were several strong Circumstances and a very general opinion against them, none have been condemn'd except a Captain Callender of the Artillery who was immediately cashier'd. I have been sorry to find it an uncontradicted Truth, that the principal failure of Duty that day, was in the Officers, tho' many of them distinguished themselves by their gallant Behaviour, but the Soldiers generally shew'd great Spirit and Resolution.

Next to the more immediate and pressing Duties of putting our Lines in as secure a State as possible, attending to the Movements of the Enemy, and gaining Intelligence; my great concern is to establish Order, Regularity & Discipline, without which our Numbers would embarass us and in case of an Action, general confusion must infallibly ensue.

In order to this I propose to divide the Army into three Divisions, at the Head of each will be a General Officer, these Divisions to be again subdivided into Brigades, under their respective Brigadiers; but the difficulty arising from the Arrangement of General Officers and waiting the further Proceedings of the Congress on this Subject has~much retarded my progress in this most necessary Work. I should be very happy to receive their final Commands, as any Determination would enable me to proceed in my Plan. General Spencer returned to the Camp two days ago and has agreed to serve under Putnam, rather than leave the Army entirely. I have heard nothing from General Pomroy; should he wholly retire I apprehend it will be necessary to supply his place as soon as possible. General Folsom proposed also to retire.

In addition to the Officers mentioned in mine of the mth instant I would humbly propose that some Provision should be made for a Judge Advocate and Provoost Marshall; the Neces. sity of the first Appointment was so great, that I was Obliged to nominate a Mr. Tudor who was well recommended to me and now executes the Office under an Expectation of receiving Captains Pay. An allowance in my Opinion scarcely adequate to the Services in New raised Troops, where there are Courts Martial every Day. However as that is the proportion in the regular Army and he is contented, there will be no necessity of an Addition.

I must also renew my request as to Money, and the Appointment of a Pay Master, I have forbore urging Matters of this Nature, from my Knowledge of the many important concerns which engage the Attention of the Congress; but as I find my difficulties thicken every day, I make no doubt suitable regard will be paid to a necessity of this kind. The Inconvenience of borrowing such sums, as are constantly requisite must be too plain for me to enlarge on and is a situation from which I should be very happy to be relieved. Upon the best consideration of the Appointment of the several Officers of Commissary General, Muster Master General, Quarter Master General and Pay Master General, Commissary of Artillery &c.; I am clearly of Opinion that they not only conduce to Order, Dispatch and "iscipline, but that is a Measure of Oeconomy. The Delay, the
waste, and unpunishable Neglect of Duty arising from these offices being in commission in several Hands, evidently show
that the Public Expence must be finally enhanced. I have experienced the Want of these Officers, in completing the returns~ of Men, Ammunition and Stores, the latter are yet very imperfect from the Number of Hands in which they are dispersed.

I have enclosed the last Weekly return, which is more accurate than the former, and hope in a little time we shall be perfectly regular in this, as well as some other necessary Branches of Duty. I have made Inquiry with respect to the Establishment of the Hospital and find it in a very unsetled Condition. There is no Principal Director, or any Subordination among the Surgeons; of consequence Disputes and Contentions have arisen and must continue until it is reduced to some System. I could wish that it was immediately taken into consideration as the Lives and Health of both Officers and Soldiers so much depend upon a due regulation of this Department. I have been particularly attentive to the least Symptoms of the Small Pox, hitherto we have been so fortunate, as to have every Person removed so soon, as not only to prevent any Communication, but any Apprehension or Alarm it might give in the Camp. We shall continue the utmost Vigilance against this most dangerous enemy.

In an Army properly organized, there are sundry Officers of an Inferiour kind, such as Waggon Master, Master Carpenter: &cat but I doubt whether my Powers are sufficiently extensive for such Appointments; if it is thought proper to repose such a Trust in me, I shall be governed in the Discharge oL it, by a strict regard to Oeconomy and the public Interest.

My Instructions from the Honorable Congress, direct that no Troops are to be disbanded without their express directions, nor to be recruited to more than double the number of the Enemy.

Upon this Subject I beg leave to represent, that unless the Regiments of this Province are more successful in recruiting, than I have reason to expect, a reduction of some of them will be highly necessary, as the Public is put to the whole expence of an Establishment of Officers, while the real Strength of the Regiment, which consists in the Rank and file, is defective. In case of such a Reduction, doubtless some of the Privates and all the Officers would return Home, but many of the former would go into the remaining regiments, and having had some expert ence of Service, would fill them up with usefulemen. I so plainly perceive the expence of this Campaign will exceed any calculation hitherto made, that I am particularly anxious to strike off every unnecessary charge. You will therefore, Sir, be pleased to favor me with the Commands of the Congress as to the mode of the reduction if it should appear to be necessary, that no Time may be lost when that necessity appears.

Yesterday we had an Account that the Light House was set on FireÑby whom and under what orders, I have not yet learn'd: But we have reason to believe it has been done by some of our Irregulars.

You will please to present me to the Congress with the utmost Duty and respect, and believe me to be, Sir, etc.