TO the President of Congress Camp at Cambridge, July 10, 1775

SIR: I arrived safely at this place on the 3d instant;Ñ after a Journey attended with a good deal of Fatigue and retarded by necessary attentions to he successive Civilties which accompanied me in my whole route. Upon my arrival I immediately visited the several Posts occupied by our Troops, and as soon as thc Weather permitted, reconnoitrcd those of the Enemy. I found the latter strongly entrenching on Bunkers Hill about a mile from Charlestown, and advanced about half a mile from the place of the last Action, with their Centries advanced about 150 Yards on this side the narrowest part of the neck leading from this place to Charles Town. Their fioating Batteries lay in Mystick River, near their Camp, and a twenty Gun Ship below the Ferry place between Boston and Charles Town. They have also a Battery on Copse Hill, on the Boston side, which much annoyed our Troops in the late Attack. Upon Roxbury Neck they are also deeply entrenched and strongly fort)fied. Their advanced Guard 'till last Saturday, occupied Brown's Houses, about a Mile from Roxbury Meeting House and twenty rods from their Lines: But at that time a party from General Thomas's Camp surprized the Guard, drove them in and burnt the Houses.

The Bulk of their Army commanded by General Howe, lays on Bunker's Hill, and the remainder on Roxbury neck, except the light Horse, and a few Men in the Town of Boston. On our side we have thrown up Intrenchments on Winter and Prospect Hills, the Enemy's Camp in full view, at the distance of little more than a mile. Such intermediate points, as would admit a Landing, I have since my arrival taken care to strengthen down to Sewall's Farms where a strong Intrenchment has been thrown up. At Roxbury General Thomas has thrown up a Strong Work on the Hill, about two hundred Yards above the Meeting House, which with the Brokenness of the Ground and Rocks, have made the Pass very secure. The Troops raised in New Hampshire with a Regiment from Rhode Island occupy Winter Hill. A Part of those from Connecticut under General Putnam are on Prospect Hill. The Troops in this Town are entirely of the Massachusetts: The remainder of the Rhode Island Men, at Sewalls Farm. Two Regiments of Connecticut and nine of the Massachusetts are at Roxbury. The residue of the Army, to the Number of about seven hundred, are posted in several small Towns along the Coasts, to prevent the depredations of the Enemy: Upon the whole I think myself authorized to say, that considering the great extent of Line and the nature of the Ground, we are as well secured, as could be expected in so short a time and under the disadvantages we labour. These consist in a Want of Engineers to construct proper Works and direct the Men; a Want of Tools and a sufficient Number of Men to man the Works in case of an Attack. You will observe by the Proceedings of the Council of War, which I have the Honor to enclose, that it is our unanimous Opinion to hold and defend these Works, as long as possible. The Discouragement it would give the Men and its contrary Eflect on the Ministerial Troops thus to abandon our Incampment in their Face, formed with so much Labour and expence; added to the certain De. struction of a considerable and valuable extent of Country, and the uncertainty of finding a place in all respects so capable of making a stand are leading reasons for this Determination. At the same time we are very sensible of the Difficulties which attend the Defence of Lines of so great extent, and the Dangers which may ensue from such a Division of the Army.

My earnest Wishes to comply with the Instructions of the Congress in making an early and complete return of the State of the Army, has led into an involuntary delay of addressing you, which has given me much concern. Having given Orders for that purpose immediately upon my arrival, and not then so well apprized of the imperfect Obedience which had been paid to those of like nature from General Ward, I was led from day to day to expect they would come and therefore detained the messenger. They are not so complete as I could wish, but much allowance is to be made for inexperience in Forms and Liberties which had been taken (not given) on this subject These reasons I flatter myself will no longer exist and of conse quence more regularity and exactness in future prevail. ThiS with a necessary attention to the Lines, the movements of the

Ministerial Troops and our immediate security, must be my apoligy, which I beg you to lay before the Congress, with the utmost duty and respect.

We labour under great Disadvantages for want of Tents, for tho' they have been hclp'd by a collection of Sails from the Seaport Towns, the Number is yet far short of our Necessities. The Colleges and Houses of this Town are necessarily occupied by the Troops, which affords another reason for keeping our present Station: But I most sincerely wish the whole Army was properly provided to take the Field, as I am well assured, that besides greater Expedition and activity in case of alarm, it would highly conduce to health and discipline. As meterials are not to be had here, I would beg leave to recommend the procuring a farther supply from Philadelphia, as soon as possible.

I should be extremely dificient in Gratitude as well as Justice, if I did not take the first Opportunity to acknowledge the Readiness and attention which the Congress and different committees have strewn, to make every thing as convenient and agreeable as possible. But there is a vital and enherent Principle of delay incompatible with Military service in transacting Business, through such various and different channels. I esteem it my Duty therefore to represent the Inconvenience that must unavoidably ensue from a dependence on a number of Persons for supplies, and submit it to the consideration of the Congress, whether the public service will not be best promoted by appointing a Commissary General for these purposes:

We have a very remarkable instance of the preference of such a mode in the Establishment of Connecticut, as their Troops are extremely well provided under the direction of Mr. Trumbull, and he has at different Times assisted others with various Articles, should my sentiments happily coincide with those of l the Congress, I beg leave to recommend Colonel Trumbull as a ' very proper person for this department. In the Arrangement of Troops collected under such circumstances, and upon the Spur of immediate necessity, several appointments have been ommitted, which appear to me indispensably necessary for the l good Government of the Army, particularly a Quarter Master General, A Commissary of Musters and a Commissary of Artillery These I muse particularlv recommend to the Notice & Provision of the Honorable Congress. I find myself already much embarrassed for want of a Military Chest; these em- ;] barrass meets will encrease every day, I must therefore most earnestly request that money may be forwarded to me as soon as possible. The want of this most necessary Article, will I fear, produce great Inconveniences if not prevented by an early attention.

I find the Army in general and particularly the Troops raised in Massachusetts Bay very difficient in necessary Clothing: Upon Inquiry it appears there is no Probability of Obtain. ing any supplies in this Quarter; upon the best consideration of this matter, I am able to form, I am of Opinion that a number of hunting Shirts, not less than lo,ooo, would in a great Degree I remove the difficulty in the cheapest and quickest manner.To know nothing so trivial in a speculative View, that in Practice would have a happy Tendency to unite the men and abolish those Provincial distinctions which lead to Jealousy and Dissatisfaction. In a former part of my Letter I mentioned the want of Engineers. I can hardly express the Disappointment I have experienced on this Subject; the Skill of those we have being very imperfect and confined to the mere manual exercise of cannon, whereas the war in which we are engaged, requires a Knowledge comprehending the Duties of the Field and Foritications. If any Persons possessed of these Qualifications are to be found in the Southern Colonies, it would be of great Pubkc Service to forward them with all expedition. Upon the Article of Ammunition, I must re-echo the former complaints on this Subject; we are so exceedingly destitute that our Artillery will be of little use without a supply both large and seasonable; what we have, must be reserved for the small Arms and that managed with the utmost Frugality I am very sorry to observe that the appointments of General Officers in the Provinces oL Massachusetts and Connecticut have not corresponded with the wishes and Judgment of either the Civil or Military. The great Dissatisfaction expressed on this Subject and the apparent Danger of throwing the whole Army into the utmost Disorder, together with the strong Representations made by the Provincial Congress, have induced me to retain the Commissions in my hands until the pleasure of the Continental Congress should be farther known, except General Putnam's which was given the Day I came to the Camp and before I was apprized of these disgusts. In such a Step, I must beg the Congress will do me the Justice to believe that I have been actuated solely by a regard to the Public Good.

I have not, nor could have any private Attachments, every Gentleman in Appointment was a Stranger to me but from Character: I must therefore rely upon the candour and Indulgence of Congress; for their most favourable construction of my Concluct in this particular. General Spencer's clisgust was so great at General Putnam's promotion, that he left the Army without visiting me or making known his Intention in any respect.

General Pomeroy had also retired before my Arrival, occasioned as is said by some Disappointment from the Provincial Congress. General Thomas is much esteemed and most earnestly desired to continue in the service, and as far as my Opportunities have enabled me to judge, I must join in the general Opinion, that he is an able good officer and his Resignation would be a public Loss. The postponing him to Pomroy and Heath, whom he has commanded, would make his continuance very difficult and probably operate on his mind, as the like circumstance did on that of Spencer.

The State of the Army you will find ascertained, with tolerable Precision, in the Returns which accompany this Letter.

Upon finding the Number of Men to fall so far short of the Establishment and below all Expectation, I immediately called a Council of the General Officers, whose opinion as to the mode of filling up the regiments and providing for the present Exigency, together with the best Judgment we are able to form of the Ministerial Troops, I have the Honor of inclosing. From the Numher of Ftoys, Deserrers and Negroes which have listed in this Province, I entertain some doubts whether the Number required, can be raised here; and all the General Officers agree, that no Dependance can be put on the Militia for a continuance in Camp, or Regularity and Discipline during the short time they may stay. This unhappy and devoted Province has been so long in a State of Anarchy, and the Yoke of Ministerial Oppression so heavily laid, that great allowances are to be made
for their Troops collected under such circumstances; The Defficiencies in their numbers, their Discipline and Stores can only lead to this conclusion, that their Spirit has exceeded their Strength. But at the same time I would humbly submit to the Congress, the Propriety of making some further Provision of men from the other Colonies. If these Regiments should be completed to their Establishment, the dismission of those who are unfit for Duty, on account of their Age and Character, would occasion a considerable Reduction, and at all events, they have been inlisted upon such Terms, that they may be dismissed when other Troops arrive: But should my apprehenstons be realized, and the Regiments here not be filled up, the public Cause would suffer by an absolute Dependance upon so doubtful an Event, unless some Provision is made against such a Disappointment. It requires no Military Skill to judge of the Difficulty of introducing Discipline and Subordination into an Army while we have the Enemy in View and are in daily expectation of an attack, but it is of so much Importance, that every Effort will be made to this End, which Time and circumstances will admit. In the mean Time I have the Pleasure of observing, that there are Materials for a good Army, a great Number of Men, able Bodied, Active, Zealous in the Cause and of unquestionable Courage.

I am now Sir, to acknowledge the receipt of your Favor of the 28th June, enclosing the Resolutions of Congress of the 27th and a Copy of a Letter from the Committee of Albany, to all which I shall pay due Attention. General Gates and General Sullivan have both arrived in good Health.

My best Abilities are at all Times devoted to the Service of my Country, but I feel the Weight, variety and Importance of my present Duties too sensibly, not to wish a more immediate and frequent communication with the Congress. I fear it may often happen, in the Course of our present Operations, that I shall need the Assistance and Direction from them which Time and Distance will not allow me to receive. Since writing the above, I have to acknowledge your Favor of the 4th instant by Fessenden, and the receipt of the Commission ancd Articles of War. Among the other returns I have also sent one of our killed, wounded and missing in the late Action, but have been able to procure no certain Account of the Loss of the Ministerial Troops, my best Intelligence fixes it at soo killed and 700 wounded; but it is no more than Conjecture the utmost pains being taken, to conceal their Loss.

Having ordered the Commanding Officer at Roxbury to give me the earliest Intelligence of everj Motion of the Enemy, by Land or Water, discoverable from the Heights of his Camp, I this instant, as I was closing my Letter received the enclosed from his Brigade Major. The Design of this Motion I know not; it may bc to make a Diversion somewhere along the Coast; it may be for New York, or it may be practiced as a Deception on Us. I thought it not improper however to mention the Matter to you: I have done the same to the Commanding Officer at New York, and I shall let it be known by the Committee of Safety here, that the Intelligence may be communicated, as they see best, to the Sea Coast of this Government. I have the Honor, etc.