conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic

conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan

local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy

local short form: Kyrgyzstan

former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "kyrg" (forty) and "-yz" (tribes) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) creating the meaning "Land of the Forty Tribes"; the name refers to the 40 clans united by the mythic Kyrgyz hero, MANAS

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital name: Bishkek

geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: founded in 1868 as a Russian settlement on the site of a previously destroyed fortress named "Pishpek"; the name was retained and overtime became "Bishkek"


Administrative divisions

7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)


31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 31 August (1991)

Constitution history: previous 1993, 2007, 2010; latest approved by referendum in April 2021 that transitioned Kyrgyzstan from a parliamentary to a presidential system, and implemented changes that allow the president to serve for two 5-year terms rather that one 6-year term, reduced the number of seats in Kyrgyzstan's legislature from 120 to 90, and established a Kurultay - a public advisory council

amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president

Legal system civil law system, which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws

International law organization participation has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch chief of state: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021)

head of government: President Sadyr JAPAROV (2021)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 January 2021 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: Sadyr JAPAROV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Sadyr JAPAROV 79.5%, Adakhan MADUMAROV 6.5%, other 14%

Legislative branch description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kenesh (90 seats statutory, current 88; 54 seats allocated for proportional division among political party lists from the national vote and 36 seats allocated for candidates running in single-seat constituencies; members serve 5-year terms; parties must receive 5% of the vote to win seats in the Council)

elections: last held on 28 November 2021 (next to be held in 2026)

election results: percent of vote by party - Ata-Jurt Kyrgyzstan 19.1%, Ishenim 15%, Yntymak 12.1%, Alliance 9.2%, Butun Kyrgyzstan 7.8%, Yiman Nuru 6.8%, other 30%; seats by party - Ata-Jurt Kyrgyzstan 15, Ishenim 12, Yntymak 9, Alliance 7, Butun Kyrgyzstan 6, Yiman Nuru 5, other 36; composition - men 70, women 18, percent of women 20.5%

Judicial branch highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts

subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts

Political parties and leaders Alliance [Mirlan JEENCHOROEV] Ata-Jurt Kyrgyzstan (Homeland) [Aybek MATKERIMOV] Butun Kyrgyzstan (All Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV] Ishenim (Trust in Kyrgyz) [Rysbat AMATOV] Yntymak (Unity) [Marlen MAMATALIEV] Yyman Nuru (Light of Faith) [Nurjigit KADYRBEKOV]