Islamic literature is diverse representing the many diverse lands that Islam covered. Islams greatest work is of course considered the Koran itself. Other great works include The Book of Kings by Persian poet Ferdowzi. To the west probably the most well known work of literature is The Arabian Nights.
The Islamic world made a major contribution to historical writing with the works of al-Mas'udi who wrote Meadows of Gold in the early 10th century.