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Study Guide

Alien – Someone who comes from another place-  In this case this period it referred to people who had moved from other countries to the United States but were not citizens.

Bill of Rights- The Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments to the constitution.  They are known as the Bill of Rights since they primarily provide protection for individual rights.

Cabinet- The individuals who head up the different departments of the governments, such as Department of State, Treasury Department together are called the cabinet.

Caucus- A group of individuals who share similar views within a party or congress and work together to advance those views

Deport- To force someone to leave the country.  Today that would be what is done to illegal immigrants

Excise tax- A tax that is placed on the sale of an item.  In this period an ecise tax was placed on liqueur

Federalist- Members of a party that believed in a stronger central government.

Impeachment- Impeachment was the means of removing an official from government office.  The House of Representatives had to vote a bill of impeachment against someone accused and the Senate had to vote them guilty.

Judicial Review- The right of the courts to review any law to see if it is constitutional.

Laissez Faire- The view that government should allow private business to work without any government interference or regulation.

Loose Construction- This was the view that the words of the constitution could be interpreted in the light of changing times.

Marbury vs. Madison – This was the Supreme Court decision that established the right of judicial review.  This ruling established the principal that the Supreme Court could rule that a law that was passed by Congress was unconstitutional.

National Debt- The amount of money that is owed b the government

Nullify- Nullify is to state that a law does not apply.  In this period it referred to the ability of a state to say that a law does not apply to that state.

Political Party- a group of people with similar view who organize themselves into an organization that works together to achieve goals and elect people to public office.

Precedent- This is an event that took place previously and is the basis for a decision taken now.  Precedents are used by courts when determining cases and interpreting laws.

Privateer- A ship that is privately owned and profits by attacking other nations ships in a time of war.  The ship operates indirectly on behalf of a national government.

Ratification- This is the act of approving a treaty by the Congress.  States also ratify amendments to the constitution.  It is the act of approving something that has already been approved by another body.

Sedition- The act of working against the government.

State’s Rights- The rights under the constitiuon that are reserved to the states.  These are the powers that states have and the federal government does not.

Strict Construction-an approach to interpreting the constitution that believes that any if something is not literally written in the constitution it is not legal.  Any power that the constitution does not eplicitly give to the federal government cannot be taken by it.

Tariff- This is a tax placed on goods when they enter the country.

Unconstitutional- A law that contradicts a provision of the constitution.  When a law is found to be unconstitutional  it become null and void.